What Would You Do? An Activity for Youth Groups This activity presents students with different social justice-related scenarios, and requires them to work together to create responses.
Contemporary portrait of Emperor Taizong of SongNational Palace MuseumTaipei Relations between the Song and Liao led by the Khitans were relatively peaceful in the first two decades after Song was founded, the disputed territories of the Northern Han and the Sixteen Prefectures notwithstanding.
Inthe two began exchanging embassies on New Years Day. However, in the Song moved against the Northern Hanlong under the protection of the Liao dynasty. From tothe Liao observed the Song as the latter built a 'Great Ditch' in northern Hebei province from the Taihang Mountains in the west all the way to the Bohai Sea in the east.
The Liao were interested in capturing the Guannan region of northern Hebei, both because the Song general Zhou Shizong had taken it from them and because it contained strategic passes. However, their forces were greatly overextended and any possible escape route was in danger of being blocked by Song forces.
The bullion holding of the Liao dynasty did not increase with the tribute either, since the Song exported many goods annually to the Liao, dwarfing the amount of imported goods from Liao.
Until the Song dynasty took advantage of a large rebellion within the Liao Kingdom inthe Song had to conduct cordial relations with the Liao. Skilled ambassadors were sent on missions to court the Liao and maintain peace, such as the renowned horologistengineer, and state minister Su Song.
Bronze edicts written in the Tangut script of the Western Xia ; edict plates were used to send urgent documents and messages, under imperial orders.
When these matching pieces are joined together, they prove the bearer's identity. The Song came into conflict with the Tanguts of the Western Xia dynasty as early as the s, when Song intended to retake the former Ordos prefectures of the late Tang dynastythen held by the Tanguts. Even after the end of the conflict, maintaining standing army in the resource-poor northern regions placed a heavy burden on the economy.
Defence expenditures amounted to 50 million strings of cash byout of the total income of 60 million. A mood of frontier adventurism permeated Shenzong's court, as well as a desire to reclaim territories he felt belonged to him as the rightful ruler of China; when a Song general led an unprovoked attack on a Western Xia border town, Shenzong appeared at the border to commend the general himself.
This resulted in continued armed conflict between the Song dynasty and the Western Xia. Inthe Northern Song launched a campaign into Xining and Haidong in modern Qinghai provinceoccupying territory that was controlled by the Tibetan Gusiluo regime since the 10th century.
Society of the Song dynasty: Political partisanship and reform A portrait painting of Chancellor Wang Anshi After students passed the often difficult, bureaucratic, and heavily demanding Imperial Exams, as they became officials, they did not always see eye to eye with others that had passed the same examination.
Even though they were fully-fledged graduates ready for government service, there was always the factor of competition with other officials. Promotion to a higher post, higher salary, additional honors, and selection for choice assignment responsibilities were often uncertain, as young new officials often needed higher-ranking officials to recommend them for service.
Officials with different opinions on how to approach administrative affairs often sought out other officials for support, leading to pacts of rivaling officials lining up political allies at court to sway the emperor against the faction they disagreed with.
Factional strife at court first became apparent during the s. The unsuccessful war with Tanguts and the mounting economic pressures prompted the first reform movement of the Song: Qingli Reforms initiated by Fan Zhongyan — They disliked his pushing for reforms for the recruitment system, higher pay for minor local officials to discourage against corruption, and wider sponsorship programs to ensure that officials were drafted more on the basis of their intellect and character.
However, his reforms were cancelled within a year's time with Fan replaced as chancellorsince many older officials halfway through their careers were not keen on making changes that could affect their comfortably set positions.
The new nineteen-year-old Emperor Shenzong r.
With Wang as his new chancellor, he quickly implemented Wang's New Policieswhich evoked some heated reaction from the conservative base. Along with the Baojia system of a community-based law enforcement, the New Policies included:Making a list is a great way of encouraging reluctant writers, and making a list on a nice piece of paper appeals to lots of children.
You could even suggest that the kids use this as a drawing frame instead of a writing frame, and colour in the camera, too.
Photo by Thomas Hawk I believe that we were all sent here for a reason and that we all have significance in the world. I genuinely feel that we are all blessed with unique gifts.
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